In a new randomized controlled trial of 100 older subjects published last year, 500 mg daily supplementation of choline for 12 weeks caused significant improvements in memory and cognitive performance (1).

Choline, found principally in animal foods, may be a cognitive enhancer.


The government currently recommends an intake of choline of 550 mg/day for men and 425/day for non-pregnant women.

Research indicates that as many as 90% of Americans consuming below the United States government’s official Adequate Intake (AI) (2).

Food sources containing the highest concentrations of choline include:



Interestingly, the subjects in the above-mentioned study all consumed animal products and thus had a substantial choline intake at baseline; those who consume plant-based diets might conceivably see an even larger benefit.

To purchase choline, click here, where you can purchase 250 grams of Alpha GPC, a form of choline that the brain readily uses. Alpha GPC is approximately 40% choline, so taking 1000 mg of Alpha GPC would be roughly equivalent to consuming 400 mg of dietary choline.

Studies have used dosages between 400 mg and 1200 mg of Alpha GPC per day, which means that 250 grams of Alpha GPC would be enough choline for between 208 and 625 days.

If you want to jump right in, you can also click here to purchase 1 kilogram of Alpha GPC, which should last several years.

Both of these links are affiliate links and proceeds support this website.

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